PLEXIFORM NEUROFIBROMAS (PN) ARE PREVALENT AND PROGRESSIVE1

Prevalence

Plexiform Neurofibroma Prevalence – 30% to 50% of Patients with NF1 have PN
Plexiform Neurofibroma Prevalence – 30% to 50% of Patients with NF1 have PN
  • PN are most likely congenital, and usually grow most rapidly during the first decade of life2

Progression

Plexiform Neurofibroma Progression – 76% of Patients with NF1 had Tumor Progression Demonstrated in Natural History Study Sponsored by National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Plexiform Neurofibroma Progression – 76% of Patients with NF1 had Tumor Progression Demonstrated in Natural History Study Sponsored by National Cancer Institute (NCI)

76% of patients with NF1 PN had tumor progression (defined as ≥20% volume increase per year) in a landmark, long-term Natural History study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI)*3,4

  • Mean PN growth rate per year was 21.3%3

*The Natural History study began enrollment in 2008 and is ongoing. As of October 2018, 111 patients were enrolled who had NF-related PN. 92 patients with NF1-related PN between the ages of 3 and 18 years who had at least 2 volumetric scans during the Natural History study were included in the analyses above.3

Because PN grow rapidly in early
childhood,
timely evaluation and intervention are critical4

NATURAL HISTORY DATA SHOW THAT, IN GENERAL, PN GROW CONTINUOUSLY3

The Natural History study of patients with NF1-related PN began enrollment in 2008 and is ongoing. NCI volumetric MRI assessments up to October 15, 2018 were transferred to AstraZeneca, to allow analysis of PN growth of patients with NF1-related PN to serve as an external control for the SPRINT study. The following spider plot presents individual patient target PN volumes over 2.8 years3:

Natural History Data Shows - In General, Plexiform Neurofibroma Grow Continuously Natural History Data Shows - In General, Plexiform Neurofibroma Grow Continuously

92 patients are presented in this plot for the Natural History study. The full Natural History analysis set includes all patients with NF1-related PN (all ages) who have at least 2 volumetric MRI scans. The age-matched cohort includes a subset of the full Natural History analysis set including patients with at least 2 volumetric MRI scans where the first scan done within the age range of 3 to 18 years was considered the baseline.3

MRI=magnetic resonance imaging.

PN ARE A MAJOR SOURCE OF MORBIDITY

Clinical Complications

Natural History Study
Progressive and Non-Progressive Plexiform Neurofibroma Cause Major Clinical Complications - Motor Dysfunction, Tumor Related Pain and Disfigurement
Motor dysfunction

Motor dysfunction (functional impairment)1

  • PN are invasive and can compress vital nerves and structures in the body, which can result in difficulty walking and loss of mobility
Tumor related pain

The presence of NF1 PN may result in tumor-related pain1,4,5

  • PN-related pain has been shown to impair daily functioning
  • Even small PN may cause pain depending on their location
  • PN pain is commonly chronic. However, acute, sudden onset pain warrants an immediate tumor evaluation
  • Some PN are undetectable by sight or touch and may only be noticed when they begin to cause pain
disfigurement

Disfigurement1

  • PN tumors can result in visible deformities

Other Major Plexiform Neurofibroma Related Complications - Airway Compromise, Vision Impairment, Bladder/Bowel Dysfunction Other Major Plexiform Neurofibroma Related Complications - Airway Compromise, Vision Impairment, Bladder/Bowel Dysfunction

PN-related morbidities may occur
or worsen as tumor volume
increases,

making early detection
and intervention critical4,5

THE SURGICAL DILEMMA OF PLEXIFORM NEUROFIBROMAS (PN)

Surgical Challenges

Regrowth of Plexiform Neurofibroma is Common Challenge in Post-surgery

Post-surgical regrowth of PN is a common challenge6

  • One retrospective analysis showed that 45% of PN regrew after surgery

Surgery can be challenging and PN may not be fully resectable due to1:

  • Continuous growth within and throughout the nerve sheath
  • Proximity to vital organs, which can occur initially or as the PN progress
  • Poorly defined margins
  • Challenging locations such as the head, neck, spine, or trunk
  • Hypervascularity, which can increase the risk of bleeding during surgery

Surgery may not be an appropriate option for all patients6

icon_airway_compromise
icon_spinal_cord_compression

Based on a retrospective review of the inpatient and outpatient records of 121 patients, who had 302 procedures on 168 tumors over a 20-year period at a single large pediatric referral center.6

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

Cardiomyopathy. A decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥10% below baseline occurred in 23% of 74 pediatric patients who received Koselugo in SPRINT. Four percent of patients experienced decreased LVEF below the institutional lower limit of normal (LLN). Grade 3 decreased LVEF occurred in one patient and resulted in dose reduction. All patients with decreased LVEF were asymptomatic and identified during routine echocardiography. Decreased LVEF resolved in 71% of these patients. Decreased LVEF resulting in permanent discontinuation of Koselugo occurred in a pediatric population with NF1 in an expanded access program. The safety of Koselugo has not been established in patients with a history of impaired LVEF or a baseline ejection fraction that is below the institutional LLN.

Assess ejection fraction by echocardiogram prior to initiating treatment, every 3 months during the first year of treatment, every 6 months thereafter, and as clinically indicated. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue Koselugo based on severity of adverse reaction. In patients who interrupt Koselugo for decreased LVEF, obtain an echocardiogram or a cardiac MRI every 3 to 6 weeks. Upon resolution of decreased LVEF, obtain an echocardiogram or a cardiac MRI every 2 to 3 months.

Ocular Toxicity. Blurred vision, photophobia, cataracts, and ocular hypertension occurred in 15% of 74 pediatric patients receiving Koselugo in SPRINT. Blurred vision resulted in dose interruption in 2.7% of patients. Ocular toxicity resolved in 82% of 11 patients. Retinal pigment epithelial detachment (RPED) occurred in the pediatric population during treatment with single agent Koselugo and resulted in permanent discontinuation.

Conduct ophthalmic assessments prior to initiating Koselugo, at regular intervals during treatment, and for new or worsening visual changes. Permanently discontinue Koselugo in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Withhold Koselugo in patients with RPED, conduct ophthalmic assessments every 3 weeks until resolution, and resume Koselugo at a reduced dose. For other ocular toxicities, withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue Koselugo based on severity of adverse reaction.

Gastrointestinal Toxicity. Diarrhea occurred in 77% of 74 pediatric patients who received Koselugo in SPRINT, including Grade 3 in 15% of patients. Diarrhea resulting in permanent discontinuation occurred in 1.4% of patients. Diarrhea resulting in dose interruption or dose reduction occurred in 15% and 1.4% of patients, respectively. The median time to first onset of diarrhea was 17 days, and the median duration was 2 days.

Advise patients to start an anti-diarrheal agent (eg, loperamide) and to increase fluid intake immediately after the first episode of diarrhea. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue Koselugo based on severity of adverse reaction.

Skin Toxicity. Rash occurred in 91% of 74 pediatric patients who received Koselugo in SPRINT. The most frequent rashes included dermatitis acneiform (54%), maculopapular rash (39%), and eczema (28%). Grade 3 rash occurred in 8% of patients. Rash resulted in dose interruption in 11% of patients and dose reduction in 4% of patients. Monitor for severe skin rashes. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue Koselugo based on severity of adverse reaction.

Increased Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK). Increased CPK occurred in 76% of 74 pediatric patients who received Koselugo in SPRINT, including Grade 3 or 4 in 9% of patients. Increased CPK resulted in dose reduction in 7% of patients. Increased CPK concurrent with myalgia occurred in 8% of patients, including one patient who permanently discontinued Koselugo for myalgia.

Obtain serum CPK prior to initiating Koselugo, periodically during treatment, and as clinically indicated. If increased CPK occurs, evaluate patients for rhabdomyolysis or other causes. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue Koselugo based on severity of adverse reaction.

Increased Levels of Vitamin E and Risk of Bleeding. Koselugo capsules contain vitamin E (10 mg capsules contain 32 mg vitamin E as the excipient, D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate [TPGS], while Koselugo 25 mg capsules contain 36 mg vitamin E as TPGS). Vitamin E can inhibit platelet aggregation and antagonize vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Daily vitamin E intake that exceeds the recommended or safe limits may increase the risk of bleeding. Supplemental vitamin E is not recommended if daily vitamin E intake (including the amount of vitamin E in Koselugo and supplement) will exceed the recommended or safe limits.

An increased risk of bleeding may occur in patients who are coadministered vitamin-K antagonists or anti-platelet antagonists with Koselugo. Monitor for bleeding in these patients and increase international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring in patients taking a vitamin-K antagonist. Perform anticoagulant assessments more frequently and adjust the dose of vitamin K antagonists or anti-platelet agents as appropriate.

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity. Based on findings from animal studies, Koselugo can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. In animal studies, administration of selumetinib to mice during organogenesis caused reduced fetal weight, adverse structural defects, and effects on embryo-fetal survival at approximate exposures >5 times the human exposure at the clinical dose of 25 mg/m2 twice daily. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Koselugo and for 1 week after the last dose. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Koselugo and for 1 week after the last dose.

Breastfeeding. Due to the potential for adverse reactions in a breastfed child, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with Koselugo and for 1 week after the last dose.

Concomitant use of Koselugo with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor or fluconazole increased selumetinib plasma concentrations, which may increase the risk of adverse reactions. Avoid coadministration of strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors or fluconazole with Koselugo. If coadministration with strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors or fluconazole cannot be avoided, reduce Koselugo dosage.

Concomitant use of Koselugo with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inducer decreased selumetinib plasma concentrations, which may reduce Koselugo efficacy. Avoid concomitant use of strong or moderate CYP3A4 inducers with Koselugo.

The most common adverse reactions ≥40% are: vomiting, rash (all), abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, dry skin, musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, pyrexia, acneiform rash, stomatitis, headache, paronychia, and pruritus.

INDICATION

Koselugo is indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients 2 years of age and older with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) who have symptomatic, inoperable plexiform neurofibromas (PN).


Please see complete Prescribing Information, including Patient Information.

You may report side effects related to AstraZeneca products by clicking here.

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

Cardiomyopathy. A decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥10% below baseline occurred in 23% of 74 pediatric patients who received Koselugo in SPRINT. Four percent of patients experienced decreased LVEF below the institutional lower limit of normal (LLN). Grade 3 decreased LVEF occurred in one patient and resulted in dose reduction. All patients with decreased LVEF were asymptomatic and identified during routine echocardiography. Decreased LVEF resolved in 71% of these patients. Decreased LVEF resulting in permanent discontinuation of Koselugo occurred in a pediatric population with NF1 in an expanded access program. The safety of Koselugo has not been established in patients with a history of impaired LVEF or a baseline ejection fraction that is below the institutional LLN.

Assess ejection fraction by echocardiogram prior to initiating treatment, every 3 months during the first year of treatment, every 6 months thereafter, and as clinically indicated. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue Koselugo based on severity of adverse reaction. In patients who interrupt Koselugo for decreased LVEF, obtain an echocardiogram or a cardiac MRI every 3 to 6 weeks. Upon resolution of decreased LVEF, obtain an echocardiogram or a cardiac MRI every 2 to 3 months.

Ocular Toxicity. Blurred vision, photophobia, cataracts, and ocular hypertension occurred in 15% of 74 pediatric patients receiving Koselugo in SPRINT. Blurred vision resulted in dose interruption in 2.7% of patients. Ocular toxicity resolved in 82% of 11 patients. Retinal pigment epithelial detachment (RPED) occurred in the pediatric population during treatment with single agent Koselugo and resulted in permanent discontinuation.

Conduct ophthalmic assessments prior to initiating Koselugo, at regular intervals during treatment, and for new or worsening visual changes. Permanently discontinue Koselugo in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Withhold Koselugo in patients with RPED, conduct ophthalmic assessments every 3 weeks until resolution, and resume Koselugo at a reduced dose. For other ocular toxicities, withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue Koselugo based on severity of adverse reaction.

Gastrointestinal Toxicity. Diarrhea occurred in 77% of 74 pediatric patients who received Koselugo in SPRINT, including Grade 3 in 15% of patients. Diarrhea resulting in permanent discontinuation occurred in 1.4% of patients. Diarrhea resulting in dose interruption or dose reduction occurred in 15% and 1.4% of patients, respectively. The median time to first onset of diarrhea was 17 days, and the median duration was 2 days.

Advise patients to start an anti-diarrheal agent (eg, loperamide) and to increase fluid intake immediately after the first episode of diarrhea. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue Koselugo based on severity of adverse reaction.

Skin Toxicity. Rash occurred in 91% of 74 pediatric patients who received Koselugo in SPRINT. The most frequent rashes included dermatitis acneiform (54%), maculopapular rash (39%), and eczema (28%). Grade 3 rash occurred in 8% of patients. Rash resulted in dose interruption in 11% of patients and dose reduction in 4% of patients. Monitor for severe skin rashes. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue Koselugo based on severity of adverse reaction.

Increased Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK). Increased CPK occurred in 76% of 74 pediatric patients who received Koselugo in SPRINT, including Grade 3 or 4 in 9% of patients. Increased CPK resulted in dose reduction in 7% of patients. Increased CPK concurrent with myalgia occurred in 8% of patients, including one patient who permanently discontinued Koselugo for myalgia.

Obtain serum CPK prior to initiating Koselugo, periodically during treatment, and as clinically indicated. If increased CPK occurs, evaluate patients for rhabdomyolysis or other causes. Withhold, reduce dose, or permanently discontinue Koselugo based on severity of adverse reaction.

Increased Levels of Vitamin E and Risk of Bleeding. Koselugo capsules contain vitamin E (10 mg capsules contain 32 mg vitamin E as the excipient, D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate [TPGS], while Koselugo 25 mg capsules contain 36 mg vitamin E as TPGS). Vitamin E can inhibit platelet aggregation and antagonize vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Daily vitamin E intake that exceeds the recommended or safe limits may increase the risk of bleeding. Supplemental vitamin E is not recommended if daily vitamin E intake (including the amount of vitamin E in Koselugo and supplement) will exceed the recommended or safe limits.

An increased risk of bleeding may occur in patients who are coadministered vitamin-K antagonists or anti-platelet antagonists with Koselugo. Monitor for bleeding in these patients and increase international normalized ratio (INR) monitoring in patients taking a vitamin-K antagonist. Perform anticoagulant assessments more frequently and adjust the dose of vitamin K antagonists or anti-platelet agents as appropriate.

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity. Based on findings from animal studies, Koselugo can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. In animal studies, administration of selumetinib to mice during organogenesis caused reduced fetal weight, adverse structural defects, and effects on embryo-fetal survival at approximate exposures >5 times the human exposure at the clinical dose of 25 mg/m2 twice daily. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Koselugo and for 1 week after the last dose. Advise males with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with Koselugo and for 1 week after the last dose.

Breastfeeding. Due to the potential for adverse reactions in a breastfed child, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with Koselugo and for 1 week after the last dose.

Concomitant use of Koselugo with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor or fluconazole increased selumetinib plasma concentrations, which may increase the risk of adverse reactions. Avoid coadministration of strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors or fluconazole with Koselugo. If coadministration with strong or moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors or fluconazole cannot be avoided, reduce Koselugo dosage.

Concomitant use of Koselugo with a strong or moderate CYP3A4 inducer decreased selumetinib plasma concentrations, which may reduce Koselugo efficacy. Avoid concomitant use of strong or moderate CYP3A4 inducers with Koselugo.

The most common adverse reactions ≥40% are: vomiting, rash (all), abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, dry skin, musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, pyrexia, acneiform rash, stomatitis, headache, paronychia, and pruritus.

INDICATION

Koselugo is indicated for the treatment of pediatric patients 2 years of age and older with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) who have symptomatic, inoperable plexiform neurofibromas (PN).


Please see complete Prescribing Information, including Patient Information.

You may report side effects related to AstraZeneca products by clicking here.

References: 1. Koselugo [package insert]. Wilmington, DE: AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; 2021. 2. Data on File, REF-75729, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP.

References: 1. Korf BR, Rubenstein AE. Neurofibromatosis: A Handbook for Patients, Families, and Health Care Professionals. New York, NY: Thieme Medical Publishers; 2005. 2. Anderson JL, Gutmann DH. Neurofibromatosis type 1. In: Islam MP, Roach SE, eds. Neurocutaneous Syndromes. Waltham, MA: Elsevier B.V.; 2015:75-86. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 3rd series; vol 132. 3. Data on File, REF-75729, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP. 4. Gross AM, Singh G, Akshintala S, et al. Association of plexiform neurofibroma volume changes and development of clinical morbidities in neurofibromatosis 1. Neuro Oncol. 2018;20(12):1643-1651. 5. Wolters PL, Burns KM, Martin S, et al. Pain interference in youth with neurofibromatosis type 1 and plexiform neurofibromas and relation to disease severity, social-emotional functioning, and quality of life. Am J Med Genet A. 2015;167A(9):2103-2113. 6. Needle MN, Cnaan A, Dattilo J, et al. Prognostic signs in the surgical management of plexiform neurofibroma: the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia experience, 1974-1994. J Pediatr. 1997;131(5):678-682.

References: 1. Data on File, REF-75729, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP. 2. Koselugo [package insert]. Wilmington, DE: AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; 2021. 3. Dombi E, Ardern-Holmes SL, Babovic-Vuksanovic D, et al. Recommendations for imaging tumor response in neurofibromatosis clinical trials. Neurology. 2013;81(suppl 1):S33-S40. 4. Blakeley JO, Plotkin SR. Therapeutic advances for the tumors associated with neurofibromatosis type 1, type 2, and schwannomatosis. Neuro Oncol. 2016;18(5):624-638. 5. Yap YS, McPherson JR, Ong CK, et al. The NF1 gene revisited—from bench to bedside. Oncotarget. 2014;5(15):5873-5892.

References: 1. Koselugo [package insert]. Wilmington, DE: AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; 2021. 2. Data on File, REF-75729, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP.

References: 1. Koselugo [package insert]. Wilmington, DE: AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; 2021. 2. Data on File, REF-75729, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP.

References: 1. Koselugo [package insert]. Wilmington, DE: AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; 2021. 2. Data on File, REF-75730, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP. 3. Data on File, REF-70330, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP. 4. Data on File, REF-75729, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP.